DESCRIPTION: Are all Dollars Equal? Los significados de las transferencias financieras de los migrantes.Dani Master: I like the Chinese and Japanese one XD
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Are all Dollars Equal? Los significados de las transferencias financieras de los migrantes. This paper provides a detailed analysis of financial remittances to families in rural Andean Ecuador. Five different types of transfers are identified and analyzed: In each case, the dollars families receive as remittances have various meanings.
These relationships are complex, and shaped by gender, age, and kinship considerations. Se identifican y analizan cinco transferencias distintas: The Meaning Behind Remittances. Money in the Western world is assumed to be impersonal, neutral, value-free, and completely fungible.
These same qualities of money also apply to the money migrants send to their families in their countries of origin. The fungibility principle of money became seriously compromised Cuestiones de genero yahoo dating the underlying understanding that in modern society all money is the same was challenged by Zelizer in her analysis of U.
She showed how Cuestiones de genero yahoo dating assign different meanings and designate separate uses for particular kinds of monies" Zelizer, In the context of international migration, are all dollars sent by migrants equal? Are they, thus, completely interchangeable? Or are they, on the contrary, not the same, conveying different meanings? The term remittances is a buzzword in economics and development studies, but is it too generic?
Does the word accurately describe the reality of millions of senders and receivers worldwide? There is a pressing need to Cuestiones de genero yahoo dating light on the various meanings and types of financial transfers that form parts of the overall
Cuestiones de genero yahoo dating remittances.
The transnational family is the primary locus where remittances are imbued with values and meaning. The dynamic interplay between remittance senders and receivers generates a matrix of expectations and obligations that may not be the same for the various members in the transnational family see for instance Banfi and Boccagni, ; King, Mata-Codesal, and Vullnetari, ; Pribilsky, Sociodemographic variables such as gender, age, or civil status influence the way such interplay develops.
Remittances do not take place in a socioeconomic and cultural vacuum. Instead, they stem from specific economic and sociocultural configurations, inserting into and changing preexisting structures. Localized
Cuestiones de genero yahoo dating ethnographic studies of financial remittances capture the specific traits whose full significance Cuestiones de genero yahoo dating revealed only when seen within the broader context they belong to.
Ecuador provides a unique context, given the two divergent
Cuestiones de genero yahoo dating systems in the country: Data from the Central Bank of Ecuador show that in recent years remittances received from the United States, Spain, and Italy account for 95 percent of the total remittance market BCE, This paper presents an emic typology of financial remittances to families stemming from original quantitative and qualitative empirical data collected in two areas of rural Andean Ecuador.
The anthropological term emic focuses on the viewpoint of those directly involved, in contrast with the observer's viewpoint. Hence, the provided analysis of migrants' financial remittances is derived from the perceptions of senders and receivers. After explaining the data and methods, the paper analyzes the identified five main transfers.
In the fourth section of the article, remittances are presented as stemming from and affecting transnational family relations. The final section offers concluding remarks. They are linked respectively by migration to The United States and Spain. These two villages mirror the migration and remittance patterns of their corresponding provinces, Azuay and Loja. Reflecting these international migration patterns, the two villages receive high remittance transfers, albeit from different origins: A mixed-method approach involving a household questionnaire, in-depth interviews, and participant observation was used.
The household questionnaire provided information about 15 percent of each village population regarding migration-related issues with special emphasis on material remittances. Of the migrants the questionnaire collected data about, almost 80 percent send money to their in Ecuador.
Interviewees included villagers with and Cuestiones de genero yahoo dating migrant relatives, migrants on temporary return, and permanent returnees. Both questionnaire and interview data were enriched with constant participant observation, as I was living in the research sites for the whole period of the fieldwork.
Emic Typology of Financial Family Remittances. Weaving together questionnaire, interview, and participant observation data, an emic typology of financial transfers between migrants and their families in their villages of origin in Ecuador was developed.
Some authors have similarly provided remittance typologies. Goldring and Levitt provide probably the two best-known categories of remittances. Levitt focused our attention on the nonmaterial sending by migrants, what she labeled "social remittances. Table 1 provides a summary overview of the five main transfers of the emic typology of financial remittances presented in this paper. In my first encounters with the villagers, it was clear that they use the term remittances to refer to the relatively small amounts of money sent to them regularly by their migrant relatives to pay for their basic expenses.
My informants identified as basic expenses of their households the following: Education expenses paid with maintenance remittances are usually for the cost of primary and secondary education of the children in the household.
This includes tuition fees if attending private schoolsequipment and books, uniforms, and transportation. Maintenance remittances pay for remedies and doctor's appointments for common illnesses such as colds and for vaccinations, but do not pay for serious illnesses requiring expensive treatments or surgery. This financial transfer pays for the basic physical maintenance of the
Cuestiones de genero yahoo dating members.
Understandably, maintenance remittances are then often thought of as nurturing money that is metaphorically eaten, as seen in the next two quotations: Do you save any of the money that your sons send you from abroad every month? I eat the money. I eat it all. Do you save any of the money that your husband sends you from abroad every month? No, it is all for the stomach todo es para la barriga.
It is important to note that maintenance remittances do not cover the "social reproduction" of Cuestiones de genero yahoo dating and their relatives. By social reproduction I mean investment in prestige and activities that allow migrants to climb up the local social structure of the villages. The average monthly amount received per household was U. Maintenance remittances vary throughout the year. At the beginning of the school maintenance remittances tend to be higher to cover expenses associated with education.
One of the most relevant features of this transfer Cuestiones de genero yahoo dating its periodicity.
Regularity of the sending is important as migrants' households in their places of origin often rely entirely on this source of income to make ends meet on Cuestiones de genero yahoo dating daily basis. Over 40 percent of households reported receiving maintenance remittances on a monthly basis data from the questionnaire.
Maintenance remittances are usually sent through money transfer operators MTOs based on convenience to send and receive money because of their extended network of branches in rural areas. The second transfer of this emic typology comes from migrants' savings sent to Ecuador. Amounts sent as migrants' savings are higher than amounts periodically sent as maintenance remittances.
Given the irregularity of this type of transfer, it is not possible to capture specific amounts. The meaning and uses of this money are diametrically different from those of maintenance remittances, as this transfer is not intended to cover the daily expenses of the receiver household in Ecuador.
Villagers do not tend to talk about the destinations of this transfer because they do not consider it their money. They are only taking care of their migrant relatives' savings in Ecuador.
Migrants' savings are not sent every month or with a fixed periodicity. Migrants can choose to keep their savings if any with them in their current places of residence or send them to their relatives in Ecuador.
In Ecuador, migrants' savings can either be kept as savings or used for investment purposes. The uses most often reported in the questionnaire were house construction, purchase of vehicles, and land and livestock acquisition.
Dollarization was unexpectedly announced in Januarysetting a currency exchange rate of 25 sucres per U. In Pindo, the most serious event impacting migrants' savings was the financial crisis that was unleashed in The crisis had a huge impact, particularly for those migrants in Spain.
It affected migrants' employment and income, which determine migrants' expense and savings structure, and thereby their remittance-related behavior. As fieldwork took place in earlythe effects of the crisis had not yet reached their full impact at the time of the data collection. As Vullnetari and King found for Albania This is in contrast with maintenance remittances, where money transfer Cuestiones de genero yahoo dating are preferred.
Some banks charge a fixed rate to send money up to a relatively high amountwhich makes them attractive to send large amounts but expensive to routinely send small amounts. Banks are also perceived as solid and safe institutions to send
Cuestiones de genero yahoo dating amounts. Money sent periodically to repay debts is a third financial transfer with a new set of meanings attached. The types of debt in each village are different.
This journey is not only dangerous but also expensive, which forces most migrants-to-be to become heavily indebted. This situation has begun to be acknowledged in the literature. As shown by authors, the stricter the immigration barriers, the higher the cost and risks involved for migrants Andreas, ; Cornelius, ; Gathmann, Inprices ranged from 12 to 20 U.
Journey debt takes between one and two years to be fully repaid. During this time, migrants make incredible efforts to earn and save as much money as possible in order to prevent the debt from growing.
During this time, no matter how difficult the situation, migrants cannot even consider returning to Ecuador: Many villagers, once they arrived to la Yoni 3 [New York], regret having gone. They want to return right then. But because of the debt they cannot.
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- ¿Son todos los dólares iguales? Los significados de las transferencias financieras de los migrantes
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